Pests and disease are responsible for losses of up to 30% of global food production representing a threat to food security (Strange and Scott, 2005). The correlation between the environment and pests/diseases suggest that climate change will cause modifications
in the current pests and disease scenario. The impacts can be positive, negative or neutral since these changes can decrease, increase or have no impact on diseases and pests depending on each region and period. Therefore, the analysis
of potential impacts of weather change on plant diseases and pests is essential for the addition of adoption measures and development of appropriate management methods in order to avoid more serious losses.
Scientists worldwide employ various mathematical models to analyze the risks of epidemics of both pests and diseases. Some of the studies carried out to analyse the epidemics of pests, diseases and plant growth associated with climate change in several
Asian countries in different cropping systems is attributed to seasonal temperatures and rainfall patterns as major factors that determine the distribution of pests and diseases. However, the development and availability of global
climate model (GCM) enabled the application of these spatial increments in the risk evaluation of disease/pest occurrence. Some of the other consequences of climate change in plant pathogen relationship is the change in genetic
resistance to plant diseases as the climate change affects the soil bacterial composition and biocontrol agents. Another component of the climate change is changes on the chemical and biological control of plant disease. The effects
of these climatic changes will differ by pest/patho-system and geographical region. These changes may affect not only the optimal conditions for infection but also host specificity and mechanisms of plant infection. It is essential
to investigate the impact of individual components of weather due to climate change and their interaction with the development of plant disease and to develop strategies to mitigate the threat due to increased severity of prevalent
major and minor pests and diseases through regular and vigorous monitoring in Karnataka.
Changing abiotic conditions will also affect the microclimate surrounding plants and the susceptibility of plants to infection. These changing conditions are expected to affect microbial communities in the soil and canopy pathosystems, possibly altering
the currently observed beneficial effects of these communities. Because both pathogens and host plants will be affected by the changing climate, dramatic changes in the magnitude of disease expression in a given pathosystem, the geographical
distribution of particular pest/diseases, the economic importance of particular pests in a given location, and the set of pest/diseases that challenge each crop are expected.
These changes will affect the measures farmers use to effectively manage disease, as well as the feasibility of particular cropping systems in particular regions. There is a need for plant protection management with a high
precision, localized weather based forecast. A forecast of all major meteorological variables and other agronomic information, plant protection window should be available on daily basis in real time. The forecasting system must make
use of wide gap of understanding the mathematical relationships between the environmental conditions and the specific stages of disease infection cycle. A well-tested weather-based model can be an effective scientific tool for forewarning
insect-pests and diseases in advance so that timely plant protection measures could be taken up. The main focus of the activity would be to investigate the influence of changing weather conditions on occurrence, spread and development
of appropriate weather forecasting system to mitigate the effect of climate change on blast disease in rice, downy mildew in grape and pod borer in pigeonpea.