Conventional plant breeding based on phenotypic selection has resulted in perceptible genetic change in productivity of economic product and has been effective in enhancing the economic value of major crop plants. The pace of genetic gains in yield and other complex traits is difficult to maintain if, only pre-genomics era technologies are used. While, conventional pre-genomics plant breeding has been, is, and will be successful in improving the economic worth of crops, the application of genomic and bioinformatics tools and resources will further push forward the genetic gains achieved by conventional plant breeding.